The Manchester Benchmarks were set up by Dr. Simon Iwnicki at the Rail Technology Unit,
Manchester Metropolitan University, England.
For further information about the benchmarks, please look at
The results of the benchmarks are shown in the supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics Volume 31,
ISBN 90-265-1551-0, published by
Swets & Zeitlinger.
In the benchmark, the following software packages participated:
ADAMS/rail-MEDYNA, NUCARS, SIMPACK, VAMPIRE and GENSYS.
Three of the packages NUCARS, VAMPIRE, and GENSYS, showed the best agreement in all cases.
The main difference between NUCARS, VAMPIRE and GENSYS,
was that GENSYS takes the elasticity of the wheel and rail in the contact area into consideration.
The elasticity in wheels and rails was an important factor in the benchmarks
because the measured profiles caused a non-elliptical contact surface
and the actual contact force affected the shape of the contact patch.
For internal tests the Manchester Benchmarks were run in GENSYS with rigid wheels and rails.
In those cases (not shown in the supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics Volume 31)
GENSYS was in very close agreement with VAMPIRE and NUCARS.